Krishna Charitra- Introduction
Lord Krishna is the eight Avatar of Lord Vishnu. Hinduism says that he existed in this earth thousands of years ago. Lord Vishnu is said to have ten incarnations, all of them known for their peculiar characters. Parshuram for his rage, Ram for his virtue and bravery and so on. Among all these only Krishna Charitra was identical to that of Vishnu. Lord Vishnu is known for his trickery and maya, same for Lord Krishna. Also, Lord Krishna is the only incarnation of Lord Vishnu who uses Sudarshan chakra as his weapon.
Krishna Charitra is very multidimensional. Lord Ram believed in virtue of his character and there were certain limits he never crossed, even if there was no way. However, Krishna Charitra differs very much from that. There is absolutely nothing Lord Krishna did not do to preserve Dharma. In all the history there is no one that resembled Krishna Charitra.
Birth of Lord Krishna
Krishna Charitra started with the birth of Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna was born to Vasudev and Devaki.
Princess Devaki was the sister of Kansa. Kansa of the prince of Mathura. He was the strongest around, even the demons were scared at the might of Kansa. Despite having the legendary strength, Kansa was known for his vile behaviors and evilness. Kansa was very evil human, but he loved his sister very deeply.
Devaki was wed to Vasudev, and Kansa was incredibly happy for that. However, when the marriage was about to over the sky spoke up and predicted that the 8th son of Devaki and Vasudev will be the one to kill Kansa. Kansa upon hearing this imprisoned Vasudev and Devaki. He did not kill his sister and promised only to kill the sons born out of her one by one to the 8th one.
As, promised Kansa killed six of the newly born sons of Devaki. The seventh son by the Maya of Lord Vishnu was transported to the womb of mother Rohini. Kansa believed that the 7th child died in the womb. Then as the 8th child Lord Krishna was born. When he was born by the maya of Lord Vishnu all the guards fell asleep, and the gates of the doors started to open. Lord Vishnu ordered Vasudev to take the child to Gokul to the house of Nanda and Yasoda. Then he ordered to place Krishna there and return with the newborn daughter of Yasoda with him.
Vasudev did what was ordered by the Lord. Kansa after finding out Devaki gave birth to girl was shocked. Even then he tried to kill her however the girl vanished saying that the one who is going to kill him was already born and was in Gokul.
Krishna Charitra in early years
Krishna Charitra in his childhood is described as very naughty and playful. Lord Krishna was the most beautiful child the people had ever seen. Krishna always acted fun and enchanted people with his maya. There was no one who did not loved him in Gokul.
Lord’s childhood was not only fun and love. Kansa knew his killer is alive in Gokul, so to do his bidding he sent his demons. Lord Krishna ever since he was some days old was targeted by vicious demons. They arrived at Gokul searching for Lord with the order of Kansa. Lord Krishna killed every demon sent by Kansa.
Lord Krishna started to grow. Now, he used to hear the cattle with his friends. Kirshna Charitra at this age was like that of his childhood period. He used to enchant the peoples with his flute and Lila. However, Kansa kept sending his demons, and Krishna killed them all. Other creatures and peoples who were hampering the daily life of the good peoples were also dealt by Lord Krishna.
Radha the Beloved of Krishna
Radha is an important figure in describing Krishna Charitra. She was the love of the life of Lord Krishna. In the teenage years, Lord Krishna was Un separatable with Raha. Whenever Krishna Charitra is described, Radha is the Love fragment of Krishna Charitra.
Lord Krishna never got together, however due to the immense love they had for each other they are still considered as the prime example of true love. Some say Radha was married to someone else, some say when Krishna left to save the world Radha disappeared. She was the manifestation of the maya of Lord Krishna and appeared when he wanted somebody to love romantically.
When the warriors sent by Kansa did not kill him. He decided to himself do the task as there was no one to do so. He organized a big stadium and organized an event. The event was a façade and was planning to kill Lord Krishna. He sent some men to the village, to tell the birth truth of Krishna and invite him to Mathura.
Everybody was devasted to know the truth of Lord Krishna’s parents. Even more so because he was invited by the ruthless Kansa. Despite everyone’s fear Lord Krishna with his elder brother Balram went to the ceremony.
Lord Krishna reached Mathura, but instead of going to Kansa’s event he walked Mathura performing miracles. Then he reached the stadium where he was also invited to take part in the event. Kansa in the name of event tried to kill Lord Krishna, by sending his warriors. The brothers defeated them all and, in the end, killed Kansa. Then the Lord freed his parents from the imprisonment of Kansa.
Kansa is an important figure in describing Krishna Charitra. The events of Kansa describe Krishna Charitra as Saviour and justice.
After the events of Kansa, Krishna established the city of Dwarika. Lord Krishna then with his brother Balram went on a mission to save Aryavart from evil kings and rulers. He defeated many, many loved him, many hated him but mostly everybody knew for what he was.
Lord Krishna’s way was different, Krishna Charitra varied from everyone. He did what was necessary and what was to be done. Sometimes he used sheer power to defeat, sometime trick, sometimes he even ran away from the ability. Krishna Charitra is very multi-dimensional compared to other incarnations of Krishna. For him Dharma was above everything, friends and families, his reputation. He never cares what everyone told about him, He always did what was necessary.
Some Adhar mi used to make fun of his saying things like Gwala (Cowherder), Womanizer, Ranchod (Runner), but he never cared for those words. Krishna Charitra defines the Lord who was inside the surface, who was true only and only to Dharma.
Mahabharata- dispute between Pandava and Kauravas
Mahabharata is the focal event that defines Krishna Charitra.
Mahabharata is famous for the war that happened between the cousin brothers.
Mahabharat is believed to be one of the most devasting wars ever to occurs in Hindu mythology. 1.66 billion people did in the war of Mahabharat as per Hindu scriptures.
Mahabharat was the result of dispute between Pandava and Kauravas. Pandav were the sons of king Paandu and were five. Where Kauravas were the sons of kind Dhritarashtra. They were brothers by the relation of blood, but struggle for throne made them enemies.
Mahabharat has many characters, and due to their active role, the war happened. Pandav, Kauravas, Sakuni, Dhritarashtra, Bhisma, Drona, Draupadi all had their active role for leading to the massive war. However, the biggest and most significant role was of Lord Krishna himself. Without him neither the war would have happened, nor the Pandavs would have appeared victorious.
Relation of Krishna and Draupadi
The character Draupadi defines the Krishna Charitra as a loyal and faithful friend.
Draupadi was the daughter of king Drupad and was the princess of Panchal. Drupad got twins Draupadi and Dhrishtadyumna as a gift from gods, as they were pleased by his Yagya.
Draupadi was the wife of five Pandavas. Yudhisthir, Bheem, Arjun, Nakul and Sahadev all were her husbands. All five of the Pandavs may be her husbands but it was arjuna who won her heart in shoyambar.
Sakuni and Duryodhan in the game of dice with their tampered dice won everything from the Pandavs. Their kingdom, wealth, palaces all were taken from them even their freedom. Duryodhan and Dushasan tried to insult Draupadi by disrobing her in front of whole court. It was Lord Krishna who saved her from her insult with his maya. Then for that attempt of misbehavior the war happened between them.
Lord Krishna promised Draupadi that he will help her always from the core of his heart. Also, he repeatedly proved that me meant what he had promised. Draupadi desired war as she was the one whose dignity was at question during the game of dice. All were there, Bhisma, Drona, Dhritarashtra and the five Pandavs. However, none of them could break what they believed to be their Dharma and help the woman in need.
Lord Krishna who was not even present physically there was the one to save her from that humiliation. Krishna Charitra was that he needed what needed to be done and always be there for the one who are in need, true to their Dharma and close to his heart.
Lord Krishna and Arjun
The relation with Arjun defines Krishna Charitra as a mentor and that of a friend.
Arjun and Draupadi were the peoples who Lord Krishna choose to restore Dharma. The actions of Arjuna and Draupadi, with the mentorship of Lord Krishna was that restored the Dharma in the world.
Arjun met Lord Krishna when he was already an adult. From the moment Arjun met the lord he was enchanted by his knowledge, strength, righteousness, and his divine charm. After, being acquainted with Lord Krishna, in time Arjun became his dearest friend. Whenever Arjun faced problem in life, he went to lord for showing the right path and he always did. They were the closest, Arjuna was devoted to the lord and Lord Krishna also loved Arjuna deeply.
Krishna chooses to become the Charioteer of Arjun in the war. He was the king, he was stronger than everyone else taking part in the war, everybody knew it, everyone thought highly of him and respected him. However, the did what had to be done and become the charioteer. He was beyond respect and disrespect who other gave him. This tells lot about Krishna Charitra.
Lord Krishna gave the eternal knowledge to prince Arjun. He showed his Birat and eternal form, and told he is all there is, and he is the supreme being there is nothing and no one superior to him. He told Arjun the mysteries of universe, mysteries to him. This encouraged Arjun to take up the arms and fulfill his duties to the world. The knowledge and revealing that Lord Krishna gave Arjun in called as Geeta. It is the holiest book in the Hindu religion now.
The war between Pandav and Kaurav
Kurukshetra was the place where the war was fought. The destructive war was fought for 11 days. The destruction of life that took place in that war was incomparable, it was too much death and sorrow. Countless divine weapons, mystic arts were used by the warriors who were involved in the war.
Lord Krishna did not directly take the weapons in his hand during the battles. However, due to his planning, illusion, and suggestions the war ended in the favor of dharma. Bhisma who could die only by his free will, Drona the supreme warrior and guru of Pandavs and Karna who had impenetrable armor, all became useless due to the lords planning. Arjun defeated them all but without the lords manipulation of the situation, it would have been impossible.
Lord Krishna open the eyes of Arjuna during the war. The Bhagavad Gita was originated from the same conversation of Krishna and Arjuna. Krishna gave 18 different kinds of yoga to Arjun at the same time. The name of all 18 yoga styles are: Vishada Yoga,Sankhya Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Karma Yoga, Atma Samyama Yoga, Vijnana Yoga, Aksara ParaBrahma Yoga, Raja Vidya Raja Guhya Yoga, Vibhuti Vistara Yoga, Viswarupa Darsana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Ksetra Ksetrajna Vibhaga Yoga, Gunatraya Vibhaga Yoga, Purushottama Prapti Yoga, Daivasura Sampad-Vibhaga Yoga, Shraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga, Moksha-Sanyasa Yoga
After, 11 days of war, countless deaths, and destruction only the handful number of peoples survived the war. The five Pandav brothers, Lord Krishna, Ashwathama, Kripacharya, Satyaki, Yuyutsu, Kritavarma and Vrishyaketu are the 12 survivors of Mahabharat. While some sources also say there were only twelve survivors.
Departure from earth
Lord Kirshna’s kingdom Dwarika got destroyed in the civil war. They were the only kingdom that did not suffer from the war of Kurukshetra. However, later got destroyed in civil war. Lord Krishna also fought in the civil war. After, the war Lord Krishna rested at a tree in the forest. A hunter was hunting in the forest at that time. He mistook the lord as a deer and launched an arrow. The arrow pierced the feet of Lord and due to that the Lord left earth.
In the earlier birth the hunter Jara was monkey king Bali and lord Krishna was lord Rama. He killed monkey king Bali, by hiding in the trees. Then, when by hiding in the trees. As the compensation for the earlier birth Jara killed Lord Krishna in the same way. This was all planned by the lord himself, the way he will leave the earth and return to Baikuntha.
Lord Vishnu- Brief Introduction
Lord Vishnu is one of the supreme deities of Hinduism. Hinduism is polytheism, therefore there are many deities and gods there. Hinduism has the greatest number of gods and goddesses in any religion in the world known today. Lord Vishnu is one of the three holy trinities of Hinduism. Hinduism has three gods that are above everyone, even the elemental gods. The three have a unique sacred duty to the universe and due to this duty, the universe functions. Lord Brahma is the creator of the universe, Lord Vishnu the protector whereas Lord Shiva is the destroyer of the universe.
The appearance of Lord Vishnu
Some scriptures, texts, and stories define Lord Vishnu as the supreme energy of the universe that has no form and limit. The energy is beyond the limit and cannot be comprehended by the human eyes and the human mind. However, Lord Vishnu is mostly depicted in his chaturvuj form.
In his most depicted form, the lord looks like a human with blue skin. He has four arms and each of the arms holds something that is a dear or integral part of the lord. The raised hands of Lord Vishnu hold the eternal disc Sudarshan and the conch Panchajanya. The lower left-hand holds the Kaumudiki mace while the right hand is always in the giving gesture of boon position.
Lord Vishnu wears the golden jewelry in his body and wears golden clothes. He is always residing in his bed that lies in the eternal cosmic sea and is made with the body of Seshnaag. Seshnaag the hundreds of thousands headed snake who is the greatest devotee of the lord makes the bed with his body so that the lord could sleep and rest on it. On the snake bed of Lord Vishnu, he is always seen with his concert goddess Laxmi. Goddess Laxmi is always at the side of Lord Vishnu in most of his depiction.
This is the most known form of the Lord. There are many forms where the lord appears to be very different and in some unrecognizable. The lord also takes many reincarnations as humans or animals further altering his appearance and form. However, Chatur vuja form is still the form, which is used in idols, pictures, paintings, recognizing and imagining Lord Vishnu.
Garud Vehicle of Lord Vishnu
All the gods and goddess in Hindu mythology has one or multiple animal companions who represent them or they reside on the back of those animals. Garud is a bird-like being that carries Lord Vishnu in his back. Garud is a very strong bird that’s strength and power are unparallel. He is the sworn enemy of the snakes and snakes tremble even at the name of the mighty Garud. He has a powerful beak, with two sets of powerful wings. The wings make him fly at the lightning speed from one place to another. It is said that Lord Vishnu resides at the back of mighty Garud when traveling from one place to another.
Goddess Laxmi is the wife of Lord Vishnu. It is said that the goddess is the energy and the feminine form of Lord Vishnu. All the three Wives of the trinities are the energy required by them to complete their universal duties in the feminine form. Goddess Laxmi is the goddess of wealth, prosperity, fertility.
Goddess Laxmi is depicted as a beautiful woman wearing a red dress covered in Jewelry. She holds a lotus in one hand and gifts wealth and prosperity with her right hand. She is worshipped for prosperity, wealth, happiness by human beings. To run and protect the universe, wealth, materials, and equipment are needed. So, these two roles are fulfilled by the god and goddess as the husband and wife.
Creation of the Universe
Lord Vishnu has a very flexible character. He is often depicted as a charming man who can enchant everyone with his magic and charm. Lord Vishnu existed before time and everything and as per the mythology, he will be here when everything in existence succumbs to time and new life and universe will rise in its place.
The universe begins when Lord Vishnu awakens from his Yog Nidra. Before the creation, Lord Vishnu is in eternal sleep. However, when the time of the birth of creation comes. The lord orders Devi Yog Maya who is residing in his eyes and making him sleep to let him open his eyes. When the lord awakens the birth of the creation begins. From the navel of the Lord emerges a lotus from which Lord Brahma comes out and begins to create the universe as we know it.
In the beginning, there was nothing just the vast space. Then the supreme god Brahma started the wheel of creation. First, he created the elements, then one after another from the elements combined to form the nonliving aspect of the universe. One after another planets, celestial bodies, and other things started coming into existence. Then was the turn to create life. Lord Brahma then created life and one after another everyone and everything in existence were created.
The character of Lord Vishnu
There are thousands of stories that describe the various aspects of the characters of the Lord. The stories from the beginning of time, before the beginning of time, and at the end of the time all point towards the Lord being of a very flexible nature. It is the nature and character of Lord Vishnu that separates him from the other two trinities.
Among the three trinities, stories say that is the one to least likely to give the boon that will tilt the balance towards Adharma. He is the one to preserve Dharma at all costs. Lord Vishnu is described in stories as an extremely charming personality that can awestruck everything and everyone. He knows when to use brute force, when to use the cunning trick and when to use its unparallel charm.
Stories tell that he always gets what he wants by hook or by crook. His main goal is to protect and run the universe while preserving Dharma and the righteous peoples. Stories show that he can do everything to complete his duty.
Lord Vishnu when must ensure the victory right ones, can trick the evil ones to their destruction. He had used a trick and his charm to destroy many evildoers who avoid the path to dharma and were protected by the boons granted by the gods. When Lord made his move towards restoring Dharma, be it a demon, asur, rakshasa, or even gods no one could stop him from fulfilling his duty.
Dharma and Adharma
As described by the Hindu scriptures the concept of the Dharma and Adharma is as old as the creation itself. When a Living being, deity, consciousness, or element follows its true nature and fulfills its duty to the universe it follows its Dharma. Even the non-living has their Dharma.
The Dharma of the sun is to give life and light to the earth, the Dharma of rock is to be strong, the Dharma of food is to satisfy hunger. Whereas the Dharma of humans is to always follow the path of righteousness and truth as shown by God. Whenever, one does not follow his duty and drifts towards evilness, hate, and giving pain to others it is called Adharma. When Adharma comes to its peak and Dharma is sidelined Lord Vishnu is the one who intervenes and places Dharma at its rightful place.
Dashavtar of Vishnu
The time as per Hindu mythology is divided into four Yug’s. After the fourth one, the cycle repeats. In all these four Yug’s when Adharma reaches its peak and righteous people will be marginalized then Lord Vishnu will incarnate in the earth to protect the good ones, destroy the evil ones and establish a system of good and righteousness. In this period the Lord will take 10 incarnations which collectively is known as the Dashavtar. These avatars ranged from those were taken at the beginning of the first to the end of the fourth one.
Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narshima, Vamana, Parashurama, Ram, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki are the total ten avatars of Lord Vishnu. These ten are in the chronological order in which the Lord incarnated. They all are worshipped separately in their accordance aside from Lord Vishnu also. All of them were incarnated on this earth with a special duty to fulfill. It is to protect something or destroy someone. It was always a cosmic duty for which they arrived at the earth. They appeared for a special purpose, completed the duty, and returned leaving the earth. Matsya was the first incarnation of the Lord while Kalki at the end of the Kaliyuga will be the last.
Among the ten avatars, six are in humans while the four in animal form. Matsya is fish, Kurma is a turtle, Varaha is wild boar, Narshima is half lion and half human beats, while Parshuram, Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Kalki are the human avatars.
Ram and Krishna are the most known, worshipped, and prominent forms of Lord Vishnu. Lord Ram was born in Treta Yug as the son of King Dashrath in the kingdom of Ayodhya. Lord Vishnu incarnated as the brave warrior, virtuous man, kind king to establish Dharma in the form of Lord Ram. Bow and arrow were the weapons of choice of Lord ram and with these, he killed many demons. When mother Sita wife of Lord Ram was kidnapped by Ravana. He waged a huge war defeating Ravana and many demons along the way.
Lord Krishna was the eighth avatar of Lord Vishnu who was born at the Dwapar Yug It is believed that when Lord Krishna died the Kali Yug begun. He was born at a prison to his father Vasudev and Mother Devaki. He was later transported to Vrindavan where he grew. Then he returned to Mathura where his parents were imprisoned and kill Kansa who did that to them. From childhood lord, Krishna killed many asuras and demons who disturbed the balance of Dharma. Mahabharat also took place in the period of Lord Krishna. He did not officially take part in the war but was the one to guide Pandavs to victory.
Among the incarnations of Lord Vishnu Parshuram is the only one who is alive today. Parshuram was born on Treta Yug and is believed to be still alive today. When the last avatar of Lord Vishnu will be born, he will also be one of the teachers of the avatar. He is one of the greatest warriors to have lived and was taught the art of fighting by Lord Shiva himself. He is known for his anger, rage, and big axe which he received from Lord Shiva.
As per Hindu mythology, we are currently at the fourth Yug It is the last Yug in the time cycle and is known as the Kali Yug. At the end of Kali Yug, when the evil persons, vile behavior will
be at peak, then Lord Vishnu will incarnate as Kalki and save the world.
Lord Vishnu forms
To kill a demon Jalandhar, Lord Vishnu disguised himself as him and tricked his wife Brinda. Later, the demon was killed by Lord Shiva. Angered by the death of her husband she cursed Lord Vishnu to be stone, grass, and tree. So, Lord Vishnu is also worshipped as Saligram (a kind of fossil stone), Pipal (Tree), Dubbo (grass).
Temples of Lord Vishnu
There are many temples of the Lord all around the world. Some of them are of the Lord Vishnu while some are of his incarnations also like Krishna, Ram, Narshima, etc. Srirangam temple is the biggest temple of Lord Vishnu in the world. The richest temple in the world is also of Lord Vishnu. Padmanabha swami temple located in India is said to be the richest temple in the world which is dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The temple has many treasury vaults collected for centuries, which is believed to be billions of dollars worth.
Nepal also has many temples dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The giant statue in Buda Nilkanta, Krishna mandir of Patan, Mukti Nath, Ram mandir of Janakpur, Changu Narayan, Bishankhu Narayan, Sesh Narayan, Ichangu Narayan are some of the most popular temples of Lord Vishnu and his incarnations.
The Rig Veda
Among the four Vedas, the Rig Veda is the oldest one. It composed of hymns which are believed to have been composed between 1500 and 1000 BCE. The Hymn of Creation in Rig Veda reveals the cause of the creation of the universe, which is explained as a mystic, occult, and even unfathomable course of action. It is a large collection of hymns in praise, the prayer of the various demigods caroled in different rites. Since the 2nd millennium BCE, The mantra and sounds of Rigveda have been verbally transferred for the learners. The substantial testimony linguistic witness alludes that the expansion of the Rigveda was inscribed within Nepal and northwestern India.
The text of the Rig Veda is tiered with the Samhita, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. The Rigveda consists of 10 books (maṇḍalas) with 1,028 hymns or ode (sūktas) in about 10,600 verses (eponymous). Among 10 mandalas, in the eight Mandalas – Mandala 2 through 9 – that was indited earliest, the odes primarily talk on cosmology and extol deities. Mandala 1 and Mandala 10 concern with platonic and philosophical questions, decorum like charity (dana), virtuous deeds, etc., interrogation regarding substantive of the universe and divine nature, also metaphysical affairs.
We can find some verses recited in various rites, celebration, wedding, prayers, etc.
Historical and societal Reference
The entire Veda is in Sanskrit. The Rig veda is the most pristine than other eastern texts. Thus, it was given more priority by western scholarship since the times of Max Müller and Rudolf Roth. The Rig veda has the records primitive phase of the Vedic period.
The Rig veda has no discernible indorsement of the social or political channel in the Vedic epoch, whether normal or extraordinary. Simply indications like livestock raising and horse racing are noticeable, and the book puts forward mediocre thoughts about the archaic Nepali and Indian community. We did not find any proofs about higher caste and lower caste though there was a division of caste system, which helped for the division of work according to their nature. The society seems to be semi-nomadic and pastoral with proofs of husbandry as hymns depicture plow and solemnize farming godhood.
It shows labor division, and interdependent relationship between kings and poet-priests but no talks of social classes’ status. Females in the Rigveda seen contrasted as orators in conversation psalm, both as mythical or providential. They are utterly cheeky outspoken and seem more voluptuously persuaded than males, in the writing. Extensive and aesthetical panegyrics on marriage evince rituals of the path that had formed during the time of Rigveda. There is a bit of proof of dowry in a few cases and no proof of sati neither in Rigveda nor in other Vedic literature.
Some of the eulogies in Rigveda states rice and porridge, like in hymn 1.61, 8.70, 8.77, and 8.83. The Rigveda indicates the word áyas (metal), but it is obscure about its type and its detailed information. Scholars are unable to find iron in Rigveda. Eulogy 5.63 refers to “metal mantled in gold”, which shows metalwork had sledding in the Vedic civilization.
Many words in Rigveda has similar roots with terms from other Indo-European languages while it contains some of the names of gods and goddesses among other belief patterns rooted in Proto-Indo-European culture. Nevertheless, a Vedic and Sanskrit literature pedagogue Frits Staal mentions nearly 300 words in the Rigveda are neither of the Indo-Aryan and Indo-European. Many of these 300, like- kapardin, kikata, kumara, kumari, etc. have Austroasiatic roots arrive from proto- Munda or Munda languages available in the Asami province (eastern and northeastern) of India, and eastern Nepal.
The rest of the 300 words – like nir and mleccha – are found in the southern area of India, with Dravidian language roots which have the origin from Tibeto-Burman. Few words like camel, donkey, mustard which are not from the Indo-European language probable to lost the Central Asian language.
Composition of the Rig veda
In each book from the “family books” (2–7) contain odes by members of the identical clan. These books are linked with several kin, clans, and headmen. Other kin and clans are also depicted in the Rig veda. These family books are connected with the distinct provinces, and make mention about famed Pūru kings and Bharata.
A rishi (the composer) is represented in each of the verses of the Rig veda by the Tradition. Single composers attribute most sūktas; for each of them the Rig veda. They comprise a pedigree-specific āprī hymn (a particular sūkta of the dourly predictable pattern, used for the ceremony). More or equal to 95 % of the hymns account for ten families of rishis in total.
Collection and organization
Members of the early Kuru descendants codified and organized the Rig veda in the Rigvedic period. The hymns, coetaneous with the creation of the Samhitas (younger Veda), were compiled including the convening of each hymn in ten books, for codifying the Rig veda. Witzel states that the beginning collection came to pass after the Bharata conquest in the war of the Ten Emperors over other Puru emperors, under emperor Sudās.
This collection helped to unite several groups in the clans which were reconciled in the Kuru realm under a Bharata king. This amassment was re-systematized and inflated in the Kuru reign, exhibiting the formation of a novel Bharata-Puru family tree and novel srauta ceremonial.
During the later Brahmana age, in around the 6th century BCE the Vedic chant was fixed by imposing customary operation of sandhi and of the padapatha (by diffusing Sandhi out of the previous metrical content).
The Rig veda is structured in ten “volumes”, or mandalas (“circles”), in different age and length.
- 1st Mandala (Volume I / Book I)consists of 191 suktas (hymns). Sukta 1.1 is talked to Agni and the term “Agni” is the first word in the Rig veda. The rest of the hymns are chiefly approached to Agni and Indra, Varuna, Mitra, the Ashvins, the Maruts, Usas, Surya, Rbhus, Rudra, Vayu, Brihaspati, Vishnu, Heaven and Earth, and all the Gods.
- 2nd Mandala(Volume II/ Book II) constitutes 43 suktas, mostly to Agni and Indra. It is mainly ascribed to the Rishi gṛtsamada śaunahotra.
- 3rd Mandalais made up of 62 suktas, principally to Agni and Indra and the Vishvedevas. The verse 3.62.10 explores true worth of Gayatri Mantra.
- 4th Mandalais formed with 58 suktas, generally to Agni and Indra also Rbhus, Ashvins, Brihaspati, Vayu, Usas, vāmadeva Gautama.
- 5th Mandalahas 87 suktas, in the main to Agni and Indra, Atri clan, the Vishvedevas (“all the gods’), the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna, and the Asvins. Two hymns each is attributed to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitr.
- 6th Mandalais formed with 75 suktas, chiefly to Agni and Indra, all the gods, Pusan, Ashvin, Usas, bārhaspatya family of Angirasas, etc.
- 7th Mandalais made up of 104 suktas, dedicated to Agni, Indra, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, vasiṣṭha maitravaruṇi, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Vishnu, Vayu (the wind), Sarasvati (ancient river/goddess of learning), and to others.
- 8th Mandalahas 103 suktas to numerous gods. Hymns 8.49 to 8.59 are about Sage Valakhilya yet has not enough proof. The Kanva clan is presented in hymns 1–48 and 60–66. The rest belong to Angirasa poets and sages.
- 9th Mandalacontains 114 suktas (hymns), fully committed to Soma Pavamana, the purification of the holy drink of the Vedic dogma.
- 10th Mandala constitutes 191 Sukta (hymns), often in later speech, sermon to Agni, Indra,and many other demigods. Nadistuti sukta of this volume adores rivers, explains reconstruction of the geography of the Vedic sophistication and the Purusha sukta is related to Vedic sociology. The Nasadiya sukta (10.129) dole out with various conjectures about the creation of the universe. It also has the wedding hymns (10.85) and the death hymns (10.10–18) which has been used in the modern age too.
Sukta/ Hymn and prosody
The collection of hymns (Sukta) form each mandala. Sukta= Su+ Ukta where “Su” means well and “Ukta” means recited. Sukta is a well-recited eulogy focused on varieties of rites and rituals. The suktas are made up of distinct stanzas of praise, which are in addition broke down into sections of verse known as pada (step or foot).
The Rig veda has hymns with various poetic meters in Vedic Sanskrit such as Gayatri (3 verses of 8 syllables), trishtubh (4×11), anushtubh (4×8), and jagati (4×12).
Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy
The words “Hindu philosophy” is vague. It is a tradition of ancient philosophical thoughts. The irony of Hindu philosophical thinking is there is no single and common philosophical doctrines shared by all Hindus. Most of the Hindus share various forms of philosophical views that are contradictory to one another. This philosophy is defined as the collection of the various philosophical views that have a various textual connection to the certain core Hindu religious text mainly to the Vedas. Furthermore, they do not identify the “Hindu philosophy” with a single and particular comprehensive philosophical doctrine.
Hindu Philosophy: the Darsanas
Most of the systematic Hindu philosophies are articulated from the ancient texts of Vedas. Nevertheless, the Hindu philosophies do not import all the philosophies from the Vedas alone. This is because Vedas do not have systematic treaties on philosophical issues. Various issues remain untouched in the Hindu philosophy. Furthermore, the core canonical texts of this philosophy are not canonical to all the Hindus around the globe.
The word “nyāya” refers to formal reasoning. Likewise, In modern times it mainly refers to the reasoning capacity in the layman terms. However, not everyone is favored to the Nyaya philosophy, those who do not favor Nyaya they tend to reduce its status to an arm of thoughts given to the logic and rhetoric. The reasoning is the core component of the school of Nyaya. Likewise, it is also an important component on the topic of epistemology, religion, and metaphysics. Thus, due to its wide array of knowledge, it is often called the autonomous school of the Hindu philosophy.
The origin of the Vaisesika—an ancient Hindu philosophy dates back to the 1st cent C.E. The name translates to the “atom-eater.” There are different anecdotes attached to the name of Vaiśeṣika, the 1st one is considered due to the ontological atomism of the philosophy of (Vaiśeṣika Sūtra VII.1.8), or due to the constraint of the diet grains picked from the field. The Vaisesika philosophy of Hinduism can be categorized with the philosophic questions.
The Sankhya philosophy is considered one of the oldest Hindu Philosophy out of the six systems of Hindu Philosophical view. Sankhya is clearly illustrated in the Bhagavad-Gita as well as in the Upanishads. Kapila, an ancient sage founded the Sankhya philosophy. The Sankhya system is considered a much liberal system of philosophy as the system nullifies the Nyaya-Vaisesika system as incomplete instruments to illustrate the universe. Likewise, it is said that Sankhya substituted the evolution for creation.
4. Yoga belongs to Hindu Philosophy
Yoga is a popular term in Hindu philosophy. The term has been widely used in the ancient Bhagavad-Gita to denote the union of the soul with the ultimate power i.e the Supreme soul. Notwithstanding the Bhagavad-Gita, Patanjali describes Yoga as the ways to get perfection by controlling the physical, mental and spiritual things on the human.
Purvamimamsa is also called the philosophy of the exposition. The main purpose of Purvamimamsa is to show the authenticity of the Hindu Philosophy systematically through different teachings like Vedas. Purva Mimamsa clearly states that the soul the ultimate energy is distinct from the body and the astral body too. It goes on to say that the liberation of the soul is possible by religiously following the rites and ceremonies described in the ancient Vedas.
Vedānta is also called the Uttar Mimansa. It is considered the most important schools of Philosophy of Hinduism. The Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy considered that the Vedanta is the most important philosophy because it contributed to the intellectual part of the Hinduism. The important text of Vedanta is considered as Badarayana, which was scribbled in the early Christian era. Vedanta is also called the ultimate goal of the Vedas.