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Why People Follow Tibetan Buddhism?

Why People Follow Tibetan Buddhism?

Tibetan Buddhism and Four Traditions

More than seven billion people are living on this planet. They live in various regions and countries and belong to various races. There are also various traits that humans have developed by living continuously in certain regions for many generations. Aside from physical traits and regional differences, there is also one thing that is common to a certain number of people in the world, and it is religion.

There are many religions in the world and many people belong to these various religions. Christian, Muslim, Hinduism, and Buddhism are some of the most followed religions in the world as their followers are maximum in numbers. They were formed at various points in time and also branched in time. Like Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism, Hinduism into Vaishnavism, Shaktism, and so on.

What is Religion

Religion is the belief or system in which there are single or multiple supernatural beings that impact the lives of people living in the world and work in mysterious ways. There are many definitions of religion, and it is extremely hard to bind the definition of religion into one sentence as it is many things to many people.

Then the question is if an individual creates his gods and deity then can it be called religion if the single person follows it?

The answer is not as a mass number of people need to follow it to call it a religion. If the belief system of one person grows and many people, follow it then it can be officially called a religion. There are many religions in the world. Some of the religions also got erased as there was no one left to follow them. The father passes the value, norms, and cultures to his offspring like this the system of religion works. However, no in this modern and communicative most are free to choose and follow the religion they like.

About Buddhism

Buddhism is one of the most followed religions in the world. Countries like China, Nepal, India, Thailand, Myanmar are some of the countries that follow Buddhism. Buddhism is the religion that places Buddha as its central figure and the topmost deity in the heavenly hierarchy. Religion is based on the path of spreading peace into the world. Buddhism started from Buddha himself when he was born in Kapilvastu of Nepal.

He was born as a prince in the royal family but then decided to give up the throne and his kingdom to find the path of peace. In time the teaching of Buddha spread then increased people started to follow the path of nonviolence. At first, people rebelled but the peaceful path of Buddha won over them. Slowly from Buddha alone, the path of non-violence and meditation spread, and increased people joined. Now, the path of non-violence had spread over many countries and many people follow the same belief system. The birthplace of Buddha is still preserved in Nepal and is a holy site for millions of Buddhists around the world.

Tibetan Buddhism

The Buddhism that is followed in Tibet and Bhutan is known as Tibetan Buddhism. However, it is also found in the parts of Northern Nepal, India, and some regions of the Himalayas.  Tibetan Buddhism is in some ways much similar to mainstream Buddhism while in some things much farther away from it. It is also called Lamaism by some people.

History of Tibetan Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced into Tibet in the period of 7 to 9th century. Songtsan Gampo the Tibetan king of that period brought the Sanskrit scriptures from Nepal and India then translated them into the Tibetan language. Gradually the inclination towards Buddhism increased and people in time got increasingly attracted towards it. In the eight-century king, Trisong detsen further increased the range of Buddhism in Tibet. He declared Buddhism to be the official religion of the state and ordered his army to wear similar clothes and practice Buddhism. This was the period for the beginning of Tibetan Buddhism.

After this came the era of fragmentation, Second dissemination, Mangol dominance, Gaden phodrang government, and quing rule. These are the ruling periods of the Tibetan state where various families and people influenced Tibet and ruled it. The spark of Tibetan Buddhism that was lighted in the early 7th century passed through all of these periods to come to the 20th century.

The 20th century played a major part in the course of Tibetan Buddhism. It is the period where the Quing dynasty fell. Then Tibet became an independent state under the 13th Dalai lama-based government. In this century Tibetan Buddhism was accepted by the people of China also by the involvement of prominent figures.

Then China interfered in the matters of Tibet and by communism tried to discard the religion. Following these events, the 14th Dalai Lama of that period had to flee to the neighboring country India. During this period Trbetian Buddhism suffered heavy loss in terms of history and arts as many of the monasteries and places were destroyed.

In this period Tibetan Buddhism has suffered many losses in Tibet but in that time, it flourished to the neighboring countries. Northern border people of Nepal, Bhutan, India had started to accept Tibetan Buddhism and people started adopting its practices.

In the 21st century, Tibetan Buddhism is still growing. It is growing not just in the neighboring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, and India but in the far west also the practices of Tibetan Buddhism are accepted by many. Not today but the monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism were established in Europe and America in the late 1960s.

The people are much more interested in Dalai Lama also. Some joined Tibetan Buddhism and followed in their own countries while some even journeyed to Tibet to learn from the monks and Lamas the ways of Tibetan Buddhism. They even went through all the troubles and learn the true path of Tibetan Buddhism becoming the lamas themselves.

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama is made by the combination of two words Dalai and Lama. Both of them are Mongolian words. Dalai means big or ocean in the Mongolian language where Lama means master or guru.

In Tibetan Buddhism Dalai Lama is the name that is given to their highest spiritual leader. Dalai Lama is a position rather than a personal name that the highest spiritual leader gets. Tibetan Buddhism says Dalai lama is a spiritual incarnation and reincarnates many times in this world. Dalai Lama is believed to be the tulkus who are believed to be the incarnations of Avalokitesvara. Now, the current Dalai Lama is the 14th Dalai lama in the long line of Dalai lamas.

History of Dalai lama

It is believed in Tibetan Buddhism the spiritual powers have a deep connection with the land of Tibet. Especially, Avalokitesvara the bodhisattva of compassion inclines the land of Tibet. He time and time again- reincarnates in the region to influence the life of the people and guide them towards the proper path and life.   Those incarnations are called Dalai lama. The beliefs and the system of Tibetan Buddhism come from the book of Kadam.

It is believed that the book of Kadam belonged to the first Dalai lama. The book has significant importance in Tibetan Buddhism, it is not wrong to say that the book lays the foundation for this religion. It describes Dalai Lamas as the incarnation of Avalokitesvara. However, many individuals were the incarnations of the bodhisattva. Few emperors were believed to be the incarnations of the bodhisattva. The emperors such as Songsten Gampo, Dromtonpa were such individuals who were believed to have been incarnated to lead the life of the Tibetan people to a better future.

There are the records of 14 Dalai lamas, and the 14th is the current one. The first Dalai Lama was Geden Drupa according to sources. However, according to the many sources and the Book of Kadam Geden Drupa may be the first Dalai Lama but he was not the first incarnation of Avalokitesvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. According to myths, legends, and various sources, there were sixty incarnations of Avalokitesvara, the bodhisattva of compassion before the first Dalai lama Geden Drupa.

The 14th Dalai Lama

Now in the long line of the Dalai lamas the turn of the 14th Dalai lama. His spiritual name is Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso in short form known as Tenzin Gyatso. He was born on 6th July 1935 and is the current Dalai lama. According to various sources, he was born into a farming and horse-trading family. He had many siblings but only seven of the siblings survived. The higher lamas had predicted the birth of the reincarnation of higher spirituality in their home.

Among the seven siblings of Tenzing Gyatso, three were the reincarnation of Rinpoches including himself. It was said that when Tenzin Gyatso spoke, he spoke the language that neither belonged to his mother’s nor his father’s side of the family. There was various selection process of the 14th Dalai lama after the death of the 13th one. With the help of many signs, omens, visions, and procedures they found him and made him the 14th Dalai lama.

The duty of the Dalai Lama was to get their rightful place in the religious and political space of the region. This system began with the fifth Dalai lama.

To India

In the 1950s the condition of Tibet was very unstable. Following these events, Dalai Lama fled from Tibet with the aid of CIA’s special activities division. After going to India, he settled in Assam and provided Sanctuary for the people who had fled Tibet with him. There were more than 80000 people that followed him there. He is still living in India in exile and aiding the people who have faith in him.

The four traditions of Tibetan Buddhism


Nyingma school is the oldest of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Nyingma in the Tibetan language means ancient. It was said to be founded in the 8th century. Nyingma school traces its roots to the period of Padmasambhava who is also known as the second Buddha.

This school believes samantabhadra and Adi Buddha to be the embodiment of Dharmakaya. Dharmakaya is the true body of all of the Buddhas.


kagyu is another of four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Kagyu in the Tibetan language translates to oral lineage or widespread transmission. Its origin can be traced back to the 11th century. It is said that the teaching of Kagyu came from the south to Tibet. Marpa Lotsawa was the one who brought the teaching of kagyu to Tibet and spread it. Marpa was previously a Tibetan householder who traveled to India and Nepal to gain knowledge.


Sakya is the third of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. In the Tibetan language, Sakya means grey earth. Its name was derived from the grey-colored landscapes of the poonri hills in southern Tibet. The teaching of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism started back in the 10th century. The tradition was started by Khon Konchog Gyalpo. This tradition also came from India and Nepal through various teachers and translators. Sakya teachings follow the system of Lamdre “path and its fruits.”


Gelug is the fourth and final of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. It was founded in the 13-14th century. Among the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism, it is the latest to be formed and is the most dominant one among the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Je Tongkhapa is the name of the founder of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. He was a Lama and tantric that lived at the end of the 13th century and the beginning period of the 14th century.

However, it did not emerge as the dominant among the four schools until the 16th century. Lamrim is the central teaching of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Lamrim means graded path. Lamrim is the central path of this school but there are other paths and ways that revolve around the central Lamrim path. The Dalai Lamas before have also given their description of lamrim path. The most noticeable is the 3rd Dalai lama who has given exposition about Lamrim.

What is Sanatana Dharma | Sanatan Dharma the Heart of Hinduism

What is Sanatana Dharma | Sanatan Dharma the Heart of Hinduism

Sanatana Dharma

There are many religions in this world. Around 7 billion people live in this plant and they are also unique by the religion that they follow and practice. Also, there are a considerable number of people in the world population who do not follow any kind of religion and are called atheists. Trey either has no religion from birth as their parents followed none or they lest the religion which they were in by birth and stopped practicing it. This article give you the details of Sanatana Dharama and science behind it.

One may be atheist or non-atheist but in today’s world, it is something no one can ignore as religion influence every human on the planet even though they may be atheists. There are many religions and some are very larger than others as more people follow it while some are followed by some fewer people and so local many would not have heard about it. Christianity, Muslim, Hinduism, and Buddhism are some of the biggest religions of the world with many people following and practicing them. Among this Hinduism is incredibly unique and is followed by a considerable number of people. Its real name is not Hinduism it is true to name is Sanatana Dharma.

Sanatana Dharma and Hinduism

Hinduism is the name that many people know as the name of the religion. However, it is not its true name. The people are called the Hindus because of a certain incident and it happened a few hundred years ago when the foreigners appeared in India. The religion was being followed by the people who were living on the bank of the Indus River when the foreign people arrived in India. Like that in time, the religion followed by the people living at the bank of the Indus River came to be known as the Hindus and their religious practice Hinduism.

Looking closely at the name Hinduism is just the nickname that was given to the religion by the people who saw it from the outside. The true name of the religion is Sanatana Dharma and it and the people it had followed it have called it as from thousand centuries ago. Those people who know the religion from near know it by the true name Sanatana Dharma while many may not know about it.

Sanatana Dharma and its origin

The origin of religion is never simple as sometimes the scientific fact, the scientific estimation of the age, and the stories described in the religion counteract with one another. It is the same with Sanatana Dharma also, as science tells the things concerning the fact found and religion with the tales that have been passed from generation to generation and ancient written scriptures.

According to the stories and scriptures were written in the Vedas and other places the mythology tells that Sanatana Dharma started with the birth of the universe itself. It not only is the religion of the humans but the religion and living rules of the gods and demi-gods also.

It is said that the universe was a big void and there was nothing in the universe. It was a vast space no good, no bad, no material, no rock, nothing just vast emptiness, and complete darkness. In that, the universe itself manifested into energy, which we know as lord Vishnu. From the Navel of Lord Vishnu sprouted a gigantic cosmic lotus from which Lord Brahma appeared.

Lord Vishnu then gave the knowledge of Vedas and creation to Lord Brahma and appointed him as the creator of the universe and everything in it. Then Lord Brahma started creating the universe, then he created planets and started creation on the cosmic level. Then he gave birth to various gods and goddesses, who were assigned various roles in the universe. These gods were immortal and were immensely powerful compared to the mortals. However, they were very much inferior when compared to Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva who were the ultimate beings and acted as the creator, protector, and destroyer of everything in the universe.

The gods in heaven under the leadership of India fight the demons and maintains the natural law in the world and the universe. They can be killed and became immortal by drinking the nectar called Amrit which grants immortal life.

After creating everything Brahma created the mortal life to live on the earth. From animals to plants he created everything and humans also. The first man created by Brahma was named Manu and his wife the first female was called Ananti. AS, the offspring and descendants of the first man Manu, humans are called Manushya in Sanatana Dharma.

Manu and Ananti were the first humans and first mortals to follow the Sanatana Dharma. The gods followed it and with the knowledge of the Vedas of the Sanatana Dharma Brahma created the universe and everything in it. In time Manu and Ananti passed their knowledge to their children and in time it passed generation and here it is today.

By the eyes of science

Science looks at religion a little bit differently than the eyes of mythology. Science bases the origin and fact on the archeological findings, the date of creation of the scriptures, and other things among many to conclude their finding and other things. Also, science changes its results based on new findings and results. Many scholars with their findings and knowledge have foretold that the Hindu religion was started on the Indus valley in the period of 2300BC and 1500BC. However, at this time is also a topic of debate and discussion among them as they had placed their conclusions on various facts and findings.

Whatever the case may be there is in denying that Sanatana Dharma is one of the oldest religions today if not the oldest there is. Unlike the other big religion, no mortal started. Nobody knows where on when it was started everyone has given a period but nothing is certain.

The trinity

The trinity are the central figure in the Sanatana Dharma. They are the set of three gods who run the universe completely form. The first is Brahma whose wife is Devi Saraswati, who is the goddess of Knowledge. By the knowledge at his side in the form of his wife, Lord Brahma creates everything in the universe. According to the Sanatana Dharma, Lord Vishnu is the protector of the universe and the one who runs it.

To run the universe Lord Vishnu needs resources and wealth. With the goddess of prosperity and wealth Laxmi at his side, he does his duty to the universe. The third among the trinity is Lord Shiva who is the destroyer of the universe and everything in it. When the universe gets to its limit Lord Shiva destroyed and make it ready for the formation of the new one. He needs the energy to do so and in the form of his wife resides the god of energy and Shakti Devi Parvati.

In the Sanatana Dharma, there are many deities and gods but none are as important for the world as they are. Every mortal, other gods, living things, and none living things came from them and eventually will return to them according to the Sanatana dharma.

Vedas and Sanatana Dharma

Vedas are the sacred texts of the Sanatana Dharma. It is believed that there is nothing holier than the Vedas in Sanatana Dharma. It is said that it consists of all the mystery of the universe and only the people who have attained massive spirituality can harness its true knowledge and power while others it is not so. It is said that even gods get their powers from it. Lord Brahma also created the universe using the power of Vedas. Lord Brahma, Lord Sarswati, Lord Hayagriva can be seen in idols and paintings holding the Vedas into their hands.

Originally Vedas where one was a single knowledge. The gods were able to understand the sacred texts but, in the case of humans, only the selective ones and the ones born with gifts and spirituality were able to gain their true essence. The gods did not want this and wanted everyone to tastes the true juice and sweetness of the Veda. Then Lord Vishnu incarnated into this world as Vyas and divided the Single Veda into four Vedas.

According to Sanatana Dharma Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharva Veda were formed by Vyas and for this achievement, he was known as Veda Vyasa. This Vyasa also was the one who wrote the epic Mahabharata as he was an important character whose involvement took certain turns at that time.

All four of the Vedas are very sacred and holds the four parts of the one true sacred knowledge. They are the organs of the same body that were separated and made easy to understand as an individual. While the people who have one by one understood all of them could see the bigger picture and get the true knowledge.

Sanatana Dharma and its beliefs

As by the gurus and sages, Sanatana Dharma is the way of life rather than a religion and practice. There are many branches and ways by which one can live sometimes it can be even hard to tell that even it is a religion or not. If you feel connected with Lord Shiva then you can follow the path where Lord Shiva is the center. It is the same with lord Vishnu, Vaishnav people follow the Sanatana Dharma as Lord Vishnu is the central figure. There are many branches in which the goddess is the central figure while in some Lord Ganesh is the central figure.

Sanatana Dharma is incredibly old and in this huge period many branches formed out and people started to live they saw fit. That is the very reason there are so many variations and branches in the main trunk of Sanatana Dharma. One can be in the Sanatana Dharma and be an atheist also. In this branch of Sanatana Dharma, people see the world and the only real thing and nothing is beyond the world. The world we live in is real and the body we have is the only reality, this is how they see the world.


Dharma is the spine of Sanatana Dharma. Without Dharma there is nothing. However, what is Dharma, and what it has to do with Sanatana Dharma?

Dharma in simple terms is the duty and duty are the things that run the thing. When we hear duty, we think it is our shift but it is much more than that. It is not like the job kind of duty where you have a responsibility to the organization or the place, but it is the kind of responsibility one has as a human being, being the conscious being on the planet and the responsibility towards the world and universe itself.

Looking at the scriptures of Sanatana Dharma even the gids are bound towards their Dharma. Even the holy trinity have their Dharma towards the universe and they complete it. The Dharma of Lord Vishnu is to protect and run the world, the Dharma of Lord Brahma is to create. Even the non-living things have their own Dharma, the Dharma of iron is to be strong and sturdy. The dharma of clouds is to provide shade and rain.

The world runs on cosmic duty and responsibility and everybody must play their part. Humans with their consciousness and power of the mind can change the fate of the world in a good way or the bad way. This is the fact and nothing can deny it. With the power of consciousness and such power, they have the biggest duty towards the world and everyone. That is why humans must walk the path of Dharma and change the world in a better way with this power and knowledge.

Sanatana Dharma helps the people walk the path of their duty and Dharma. The unique thing about Dharma is that it may completely differ from individual to individual and everyone has a unique path as an individual and role in this vast world.

Being kind, speaking the truth, acting for the welfare of others and society, thinking right, being honest are some things that are similar for every individual. There is the equipment that is needed to walk the path of the Dharma and with similar equipment and strength, the path and destination of every individual will be unique as we all are from one another.

The Four Noble Truths Given By Buddha

The Four Noble Truths Given By Buddha

The Four Noble Truths Given By Gautam Buddha

Here are four noble truth in summery:

  1. There is suffering (Dukkha)
  2. There is cause of suffering (Samudāya)
  3. Suffering can be ceased (Nirodha)
  4. There are paths for the cessation of suffering (Magga)

Gautam Buddha whose original name was Siddhartha Gautam was born in Lumbini, Nepal 2500 years ago. He attained enlightenment at the age of 35. The four noble truths are experienced by him when he was enlightened.  After that, he started to teach these four noble truths to the people.


There is suffering (Dukkha)

Suffering is the first truth of life. There are various forms of Suffering. Birth, Old age, Sickness, and Death are four major sufferings. Life experiences suffering in each and every situation. You cannot achieve your expectations. When an expectation is not ahieved one becomes miserable.

Liked things won’t happen, disliked things happen; this is also suffering. A favorable situation won’t happen, an unfavorable situation happens, this is suffering. Fail to live with a beloved company, compelled to live with hatred to company, this is suffering.

Human beings have unlimited desires and cravings. When you have a craving you will definitely have aversion or hatred. These dualities bring suffering every moment. If a desire is not fulfilled, one suffers. He will suffer though he attains a desire because it is not permanent. He may suffer even with the fulfilled object. The chain of desire is non-terminating thus the suffering is also non-terminating.

First Noble Truth- There is cause of suffering (Samudāya)

The second noble truth is the origin or cause of suffering. According to Buddha “tanha” i.e., desire is the root of all miseries. When one is free from desires he will be freed from suffering. The miseries exist as long as the desires exist. When one is liberated from desires he attains perfect tranquility. The misery won’t be washed away until he attains peace of mind.

The day-to-day problems like hunger, thirst, physical pain, miseries of loss, etc. have clearly detectable causes. But the root of all the suffering is the desire (tanha). The “tanha” arises in three forms. They are treated as three poisons which are the ultimate cause of suffering-

  • Moha: Delusion or ignorance
  • Raga: The closer translations are craving, clinging, attachment, passion, greed, or desire
  • Dvesha: Hatred, aversion, urges.

Second Noble Truth- Suffering can be ceased (Nirodha)

The third noble truth is- “the possibility of ending i.e. misery can be uprooted”. The suffering is not permanent. Suffering contains various potentialities to eradicate it. Each and every problem has a unique solution. There is no such problem that doesn’t have a solution. As a coin has the head on a side and tail on the other side so the life has suffering on a side and the possibility of releasing the problem.

Third Noble Truth- Path to cease the suffering

The final noble truth is- there is the path to end the suffering. The path is a set of doctrines known as the Eightfold Noble Path. This path follows the middle way. This is to be practiced being free from the three poisons- illusion, craving, and aversion. The misery will be uprooted when one has to learn to be liberated from these three evils.

The Eightfold Noble Path casts aside both extremities- intense and loose. It should be moderate. If the wire from a pole to another is too tight it will break and if it is too loose it may fall towards the floor. Severe indulgence and severe asceticism neither are helpful for enlightenment. The division of eightfold paths are-

  1. Sammā ditthi i.e. Right Understanding
  2. Sammā san̄kappa i.e. Right Intention
  3. Sammā vācā i.e. Right Speech
  4. Sammā kammanta i.e. Right Action
  5. Sammā ājīva i.e. Right Livelihood
  6. Sammā vāyāma i.e. Right Effort
  7. Sammā sati i.e. Right Mindfulness
  8. Sammā samādhi i.e. Right Concentration
Advaita Vedanta and Its Basic Principles- Philosophy Of Non-Duality

Advaita Vedanta and Its Basic Principles- Philosophy Of Non-Duality

Advaita Vedanta and Hinduism

Hinduism is a mystery to all scholars. There is no definite rope that binds tradition or the path that paves out the road for tradition. The religion that is mostly followed in the southern part of Asia is the subject of study and interest to many. Looking at Hinduism, it is one of the oldest religions in the world currently.

There is no exact estimation of who or where started the practice of Hinduism. Practice has survived and went through thousands of years. During this period, the main branch of Hinduism got divided into many sub-branches. They originated from the original route but their ideology and practices and very much differ from the original path. Advaita Vedanta, Dvaita Vedanta are some of the major ideologies and philosophies of the various branches of Hinduism.

Hinduism is a remarkably diverse religion. The element that fuels its diversity is its acceptance of the wide range of philosophies. The people who accept Hinduism do not necessarily need to accept all the philosophies and practices. Also, they do not need to follow the hierarchy of gods of the main Hinduism. There are few subgroups that follow their own hierarchy of the gods and do not consider the other systems.

Let us focus on the ideologies more than the gods as it is the main factor that distinguishes the various groups from others. The arising of many ideologies is believed to be the chronological effect of time. First was the main branch, then with time a separate set of ideologies arose which resembled the original but differed in certain ways. With more time increased ideologies rose. Some from the main branch, while some even arose from the side branch also making their own subgroups.

Since the ideologies originated at various times, it is natural for some of them to be remarkably diverse from one other. Some have ideologies so alike that one needs to research very find any kind of difference between them or they are not so different in their core beliefs. Some are so diverse and have different ideologies that it is hard to tell them the ideologies of Hinduism. Advaita Vedanta, Dvaita Vedanta, Vishishta Vedanta. Vedanta are all examples of the diverse ideologies that exist within Hinduism. There are other many also some in such a minority that mostly no one knows about it and few people are there who follow them.

Advaita Vedanta origin

It is one of the oldest philosophies of its kind to exist. There are traces that the ideologies of Advaita Vedanta or similar ideologies that existed thousands of years ago. However, the most prominent and trustworthy elaboration of the ideology can be found in the late 8th century. There was a sage that lived at the time and is believed to be the one who clarified the depth, meaning, and techniques of Advaita Vedanta. His name was Adi Shankara and was the greatest exponent of Advaita Vedanta. He gave the knowledge of the singular reality that exists in the world and gave knowledge of the truth of the world.

Adi Shankara

Adi Shankara was one of the greatest sages to have lived in the ancient Indian subcontinent. His most notable or the greatest contribution is in the field or dispersing the knowledge of Advaita Vedanta.

The birth of Adi Sankhara is a remarkably diverse topic as there are many scholars who have proposed various times with their various reasoning and their findings to support their argument and theory. 509-477 BCE, 44-12 BCE, 788-820 BCE, 805-897 BCE are some of the birth and death years of the great sage. There is a huge dispute about the birth and life period of the sage.

Various scholars with their study and research had proposed this various times. They are based on some archeological findings, scriptures, and other things. Looking at the biography of the great sage aside from the birth and death period they are also some sort of mystery and various versions exist which are supported by various scholars. They are at least 14 various versions of the biography of the sage that exist. However, whatever version of the biography may be one thing is clear and he is the one who gave the teachings of the Advaita Vedanta to the world.

Most of the sources claim that Sankhara was born in a Brahmin family. His parents were old couples who were childless till the time Sankhara was born. His father is said to have been dying at an early age. As morning shows the day, Sankhara was also very much inclined to the teachings of the Veda and scriptures and wished to live the life of the hermit.

At first, his mother strongly disagreed with him as walking the path of sage hood means staying away from the family and rejecting earthly pleasures. However, with the passage of time his mother also agreed on his quest to become the sage and Sankhara went on his journey to attain the knowledge and life that he sought.

Advaita Vedanta and its philosophy

Advaita means non-duality, and Advaita Vedanta is the philosophy of non-duality. It says that there is only one supreme being in the universe and other than that all is meaningless. It says that there is no difference between the subject and the object. In this world, we experience many things, one is the physical world, and another is the spiritual world. Many other ideologies perceive both the realities and other ideologies. However, Advaita Vedanta says that the appearance of the two and more than two natures, the difference between subject and object is also not true and there is one and only one thing.

God in Advaita Vedanta

According to Advaita Vedanta, Para Brahma is the highest form of existence there is. He is superior to each and everything in existence. Everybody is born and in existence is and always will be inferior to the supreme being. The supreme god is unborn and is the highest reality in existence. Except for the Para Brahma, everyone and everything in existence can be replaced, recreated, and are ever-changing in the form and nature of their reality itself.

God is the one who creates the universe when he wishes, maintains the universe till he wishes, and the universe dies only with his wish only. Everything in the universe, even the non-living things and mass celestial bodies like the planets, galaxies, solar systems are created by the god and are in existence through his and his permission only. The supreme god is the source of all beings, they are born through him and his desire. God is also their destiny and ultimate resting point as they will be returning to God himself.

Physical World- Maya

Unlike the other ideologies, Advaita Vedanta calls the entire physical world Maya. It is called the non-dualistic ideology because it only accepts the ideology of a supreme being and completely rejects other reality and ideologies. Advaita Vedanta also rejects the world itself. According to Advaita Vedanta, the world is a giant Maya, and we are trapped inside this Maya. We can only move forward by rejecting this Maya and illusion.

Everything in this world is Maya and is keeping people away from eternal bliss. When people get closer or more attached to this earthly self, earthly relations further they will be away from the god. The world is something to be rejected and steps need to be taken towards the god himself and moksha.


The soul is the only real thing in this world of Maya and attachment. However, Advaita Vedanta only accepts the reality of the god, so why it also says that in this world soul is the only thing that is not Maya. This can make people with half knowledge very confused but there is a reason for it. According to Advaita Vedanta’s soul has no individual existence at all. It is never a part of this material world. It is only here for the time being.

The soul is the fragment of God in each living being. In more efficient terms it is the projection of God himself. No being can exist without the projection of God inside of him. Otherwise, they will only be the lump of materials. However, when the projection of God in the form of soul enters the body, the being becomes alive.


Maya when translated to English becomes an illusion. Maya is used to describe the attachment that an individual has towards a certain thing or nature. Advaita Vedanta describes the entire world as Maya. The para-Brahma is real, the soul is real as it is the direct projection of the god himself, and other than that everything is an illusion. Maya in depth is the attachment of ourselves to the world. Every soul moves towards God and enlightenment. However, the soul gets distracted with attachment and worldly things.

The nature of the soul is to seek. It is always seeking something that will provide it with bliss and liberation. The ultimate god is the only thing that can provide eternal bliss according to Advaita Vedanta. However, the path is filled with world, worldly desire, a worldly attachment that will obstruct the path towards God and liberation. To completely cast out the Maya one must be able to cast away the world itself as all the constituents of the world along with the world itself is a giant Maya. According to Advaita Vedanta Maya needs to be cast aside and seen through to move forward in the path of spirituality.

Purushartha- The goal of human life according to Advaita Vedanta


Dharma is the first Purushartha. Dharma is the duty and the right that one needs to do for their betterment as well as the betterment of other peoples. It is the right act not from the individual but from the universal point of view.


Arta is the meaning. It can be anything that acts as the support to run one life. The ideologies and the consciousness are the Artha to life and dharma. People decide their dharma according to their Artha, ideologies, and beliefs.


The Kama is the pleasure and enjoyment. It is an activity of procreation as well as enjoyment.


Moksha is the last of the Purushartha and is the focus of the teachings and path of Advaita Vedanta. Moksha is the ultimate state of liberation one achieves when they see through Maya and the illusion of the world. Moksa is the ultimate bliss and the goal of each soul that exists.

Advaita Vedanta says that moksha is the key to feel the presence of projection of the supreme god inside of oneself. Moksha is the key to look beyond the physical body and physical self which completely is the illusion and the soul which is your true existence and connection to the god. When one completely understands soul (Aatma) and Brahma (The supreme god and only reality) they enter the state of liberation and obtain cosmic sense which simply is known as Moksha.

Advaita Vedanta says that one in their life knowing their soul and go can attain moksha and it is named Jivanmukti (The liberation in life). One who attains can see and feel the world in a new light. The way in which they have never seen and realized. The perspective of the world which can only be visualized by those who are in the plain of moksha.

Advaita Vedanta in other religions

Advaita Vedanta is accepted as an ideology to live by rather than a religion. It is the way of life that people believe to get their way to their soul and enlightenment. The ideology and philosophy are the reasons that Advaita Vedanta extends beyond Hinduism itself. There is no hierarchy of the gods, no this and that. There is one supreme soul which is real and no other thing except that is real. Everyone who has realized tries to move towards the ultimate existence leaving behind the false world and attachment.

This ideology and philosophy are the reason Advaita Vedanta and similar practices as it is practiced in the religions like Buddhism and Jainism. The ideologies transcend religion itself.

Dvaita Vedanta- Path Of Dualism An ideology of Hinduism- 2 Realities of The world

Dvaita Vedanta- Path Of Dualism An ideology of Hinduism- 2 Realities of The world

Dvaita Vedanta- One Of The Dominant Branches of the Hindu philosophical system of Vedanta

Hinduism is believed to be the oldest religion that is in existence. Nobody has the exact date when who and where started the tradition of Hinduism. Hinduism today is one of the largest religions in the world. The religion itself is surrounded by mysteries. The main thing the religion is not called Hinduism, its true name is Sanatana Dharma. The name Hindu religion was given by the foreigners who visited the land in the past.

The religion was followed by the people living on the bank of the Indus River, which became the Hindu religion. Another unique thing about religion is that the religion itself is remarkably diverse, it accepts all ideologies so much so that one can be an atheist Hindu. Dvaita Vedanta, Advaita Vedanta, Vaishnav are some of the various ideologies that various groups of Hinduism follow.

Hindu people believe that Hinduism or Sanatana dharma is the religion that existed before the time itself among the deities. Then when the first humans were created, they also followed and lived by the principle of Sanatan Dharma. That was the starting point and it got to the point where we are now. Whatever may be the beginning of Hinduism, one utter truth is that it has been here and followed for an extended period, thousands of years. During this period, various subgroups and ideologies arose. There started acting as the branch of Hinduism. They followed the same gods; the deities were the same however the hierarchy of the deities varies according to these divisions.

The hierarchy of the deities is one thing, their ideologies also may differ from each other very much. Some so similar that it is hard to distinguish between them. While some so diverse and polarizing that it is hard to believe that they belong to the same religion Hinduism. Due to these divisions within Hinduism and its branches, one who is just knowing about Hinduism can get very confused. And, getting confusion is also rational as the field itself is extremely vast and is the combination of multiple ideologies and beliefs.

Origin of Dvaita Vedanta

Dvaita Vedanta is one of the dominant branches of the Hindu philosophical system of Vedanta. There are three prominent ideologies to be exact and Devita is Vedanta is one of them. Advaita (non-dualism) and Visista Dvaita (qualified non-dualism) are the other two and share a quite different ideology than Dvaita Vedanta.

This sub-branch was formed centuries ago, scholars claim that it came into existence around the late 13th century. It was formed by a great sage Madhav Acharya who people believed was the incarnation of the god. Madhav Acharya in the 13th century gave the ideas and the philosophy of this belief. He is also the chief proponent of this belief. Dvaita Vedanta considers lord Vishnu as the central figure of their belief and has the ideologies and basis around him.

Madhav Acharya

Madhav Acharya is the one who gave the concept of Dvaita Vedanta to the world. He was the sage that lived in ancient India around the 13th century. Scholars claim that he was born in a place called pajaka. The place now in the present world is the state of Karnataka in the country India. He was born in the Brahmin family and had access to the knowledge of the Vedas and scriptures from the early point of his life. At that time learning was not for all.

The name he received at the time of his birth was Vasudeva. Acharya showed an inclination to the ascetic way of living and choose that in his teenage life. Later he received his other names while he continued his sage journey and lived an exemplary life. Madhav Acharya or Madhava are his other names aside from Vasudev. The mention of the various names in various texts can be found in various texts and scriptures.

Incarnation of God

Madhav Acharya is believed to be the incarnation of the Hindu mythological elemental god Vayu (wind god). He incarnated into this world when the supreme lord told him to incarnate here. The time was when people were people were walking other paths and forgetting the true path of Dharma. Then seeing the condition of the world supreme Lord Vishnu sent Lord Vayu to give the true knowledge and the teachings to the humans. With the mission to give the true knowledge of the world and the god, Madhav Acharya was incarnated. It is believed by the people who follow Dvaita Vedanta.

The teachings of Dvaita Vedanta or the path of Dvaita Vedanta

Dvaita Vedanta is the path of Dualism. It believes that the world is two realities and both realities are true. Both exist separately but one cannot deny or reject the existence of the other. Lord Vishnu is the first reality or path of dualism. He is also the central figure of Dvaita Vedanta.

Lord Vishnu (Para Brahma)

Lord Vishnu is one of the trinities of the General mainstream Hinduism. He completes the role of protector in the universe. Every life or even non-living after being created by the creator god Brahma is protected by Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu protects them and nurtures them when it completes its life and is destroyed by the god of destruction Shiva. This is the mainstream belief of Hinduism.

Dvaita Vedanta believes that Lord Vishnu is the supreme being of the universe. He is the para-Brahma himself, the complete one in himself. The lord is the only one without any flaws and the one with all the characters. There is no one equal to the supreme being and he is the other reality that exists simultaneously with the physical world.

Lord Vishnu is depicted as a beautiful blue-skinned man who is always depicted as sleeping in the eternal serpent Sesh Naag. Sesh Naag is the thousands of-headed snake that is believed to put the earth in one of its heads to balance it.

Lord Vishnu is eternal and his form cannot be grasped by the human mind and eyes, it is much beyond that. The Lord is worshipped is giving him the form that resembles humans. Chatur vuj (Four arms) form is the most depicted form of lord Vishnu.

In this form, Lord Vishnu wears golden pieces of jewelry, yellow clothes. He holds the Kaumudiki mace in one hand, Conch in another. Other hands hold the Sudharsana chakra, the disc weapon of Lord Vishnu that he uses to destroy the evildoers. He rides mighty Garud as his bahana. The wife of Lord Vishnu is called Goddess Laxmi. Lord Vishnu is the one who saves humanity time and time in various times.

The other gods by Dvaita Vedanta

Dvaita Vedanta also explains the other gods. If Lord Vishnu is the supreme god, who are the other gods, and where did they come from?

As we know Hindu mythology has lots of gods and goddesses. So, how did they come into existence?

They were created by Lord Vishnu or the exact word would be turned. When a human does Dharma in their lives, they live for the good of themselves and the good of the other peoples, reject negativity and Adharma they will be rewarded by the supreme god in their afterlife.

According to Dvaita Vedanta, only Lord Vishnu who is the supreme being cannot be changed other than him everyone can be changed to another nature if he willed so. For example, turning the souls of the people into gods and allowing them to live in the heavens. The supreme lord can promote or demote the consciousness and level of the souls according to their behavior and karma. Many gods in Hinduism were once humans and were converted to the gods with their novel deeds and good karma.

Hierarchy of the Gods according to Dvaita Vedanta

The supreme one is Lord Vishnu himself. After he is his wife Goddess Laxmi, who comes second. She is the energy of Lord Vishnu and came into the existence when the energy took the feminine form. She is eternal and divine like Lord Vishnu but comes behind him in the universal hierarchy. The lower from the supreme gods state are the Vayu (the wind god) and Brahma (the creator god) with their wives. The wife of Brahma is Sarswati and the wife of Vayu is Bharati. Then other gods come simultaneously that we know like, Ganesh, Indra, Agni, and so on.

The world (Paratantra) by Dvaita Vedanta

The world is another reality of Dvaita Vedanta. It is another way aside from the eternal Lord Vishnu. Many of the religions or sub-divisions of Hinduism say that the world is made of Maya and one should avoid it to get to the god. One who gets moksha gets to reject the world and go to God. The various philosophies of Hinduism differ in the aspect of how they perceive the real world.

Dvaita Vedanta accepts the world also as real as the god. The world needs to run and we as humans will run it. Everything we see in this world and which exists with us even the things we cannot see belongs to this reality. Our voices, soul, the physical universe, other living beings all belong to the world.

The major difference by which Dvaita Vedanta perceives the world is to accept its reality. It is not some illusion to be cast away or the inferior place that needs to be crossed to attain God. Yes, the world is dependent on the supreme being but is not seen as an inferior part or fake but another part of the reality that needs to be tested and explored.

Karma is the basis of the world. The physical world runs with the law of Karma. Everybody and everyone are bound by the nature of their karma to the world. Even the nonliving things have Karma the karma of stones is to be strong, the karma of light is to give vision, and so on. By rejecting the world people try to escape their karma, when the world is told fake it takes away the motivation of the karma itself. Why work for something that is fake?

Dvaita Vedanta counters this logic in a strong way. The world is real as well as karma. Accepting the world as the real and is reality what drives everyone to karma. If it was not really, why do we have Karma? Then why we must do the right? Can we just reject the world by calling it a fake or illusion? Can the body survive by calling food a fake part of the world? No, it cannot both the food and hunger are real. The karma of the food is to satisfy your hunger and the karma of the body is to want food to run itself.

Karma runs the world there is no doubt about it. Karma of everyone is the basis on which the foundation of the society itself rests, there is nothing that can deny this logic.

Relation of the Supreme God (Lord Vishnu) and the world

Dvaita Vedanta says that Lord Vishnu and the world are the two realities. Despite that our reality is dependent on the supreme lord and he is the one who takes care of it. The lord is filled with love, compassion, and mercy which he has for our world and ourselves. Lord Vishnu protects all and everyone who lives in this world and cares deeply for them.

Lord Vishnu has arrived in our world many times. Time and time Lord Vishnu has incarnated into our world in various forms to teach people how to live their lives and walk into the path of righteousness. From the beginning of the time to the end of time, Lord Vishnu will arrive a total of 10 times to teach Dharma and the right paths to the people of the real world.

They collectively are called the Dash avatars. Nine have been completed now one remains. They are the major avatars; some scriptures say that there are more than twenty but more than 10 are the minor avatars and contain the fragments of his consciousness and powers.

Some Principal God in Hinduism | Supreme Deities in Hinduism Among 33 Koti Devata

Some Principal God in Hinduism | Supreme Deities in Hinduism Among 33 Koti Devata

God in Hinduism- Introduction

God in Hinduism is an overly complex topic. People who do not know much about Hinduism may be very confused about the concept of God in Hinduism. However, if one were to do little bit research, God in Hinduism can be an amazing thing to be immersed into. God in Hinduism is polytheistic. They worship vast number of gods. As the matter of fact, the number of deity that Hinduism have, is the greatest in any religion. However, is Hinduism truly Polytheistic?

Hinduism is one of the biggest religions of the world. 15-16% of the total population of the world follow Hinduism. Hinduism is also the oldest religion in the world, as nobody truly knows the founder of this religion. The true name of Hinduism is the Sanatana dharma. The religion was followed by the people of ancient India. However today due to migration and various other factors, the religion is widespread in the world.

Nepal is the country with highest percentage of Hindu among its population followed by India. Significant number of Hindu also can be found in the countries like Thailand and SriLanka.

Hinduism is understood to depth is actually not truly Polytheistic. According to Hinduism there is only one God, but to fulfill various roles and to run the world he transformed into many forms. God in Hinduism even goes beyond this concept it even accepts atheism, henotheism, monotheism, and others also.

There was a being in the universe beyond sex, time and imagination. He/she was the only one that existed. Now he/she wanted got bored with loneliness and wanted others to exist. That eternal, omnipotent being desired to create life. Hence, divided himself into many forms to fulfill various roles that are required to run the world.

The Holy Trinity

Holy trinity is the pick hierarchy of God in Hinduism. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva make the trinity. Brahma is the creator; Vishnu is the protector and Shiva is the destroyer. They are beyond the elemental gods and the god that reside in heaven with Indra. They live in separate place with their wives and children.


Brahma is the creation God in Hinduism. Everything that exists was created by Lord Brahma. Brahma the creation God in Hinduism, is often depicted as the old man with residing in a lotus with four heads. Brahma resides in Brahma Lok with his wife Sarswati. The job of Lord Brahma is creation, every being, heavenly bodies from Sat Yug to end of Kaliyuga is created by Brahma. Even the gods beside the trinity are created by Brahma.  Lord Brahma unlike the other trinity Mahadev and Vishnu is not perfectly immortal. After the completion of four Yug’s the brahma also dies, and new Brahma arises to again start the creation.


Sarswati is the Knowledge God in Hinduism. She is the female energy of Lord Brahma. For creation, the power of knowledge is required. She is also the goddess of music, art, and literature. She is depicted as woman with four hands residing in a lotus. Her one hands hold Vedas, flower and veena in two hands.


Lord Vishnu is the protector God in Hinduism. He protects all the things in the universe. Goddess Laxmi is the wife of Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu is often depicted as a man with blue skin sleeping in a bed made of snake sesha with goddess Laxmi at his side. Lord Vishnu lives in Baikuntha with Mother Laxmi. He holds Kaumudiki mace in one hand, Panchajanya couch in one hand, Sudarshana charka in one hand. Garuda is the name of Bahan of Lord Vishnu.

Lord Vishnu is the protector of the people who believe in Dharma and live the life in right way. To protect the humanity, restore Dharma and free the earth from evil deeds he incarnates. In the four Yug’s Lord Vishnu will take 10 incarnations to save humanity. Altogether they are known as Dash avatars. Till now nine Avatars of Lord Vishnu have incarnated and protected Dharma in their time. In this kali Yug Lord will take his final avatar Kalki and free the world of evil people and once gain restore Dharma.

Besides Lord Vishnu his incarnations are also worshipped separately. In their time they had slayed many demons and asurs to preserve Dharma.


Goddess Laxmi is the wealth God in Hinduism. She is the wife of Lord Vishnu. In the idols and images of Lord Vishnu she is always with him. To protect and run the world wealth is needed, she is the feminine part of Lord Vishnu and is his energy. She is depicted as a woman sitting in a large flower, holding Lotus and big pot of gold coin in her hands. She also incarnates with Lord Vishnu to accompany him in his journey to restore Dharma. When Lord Visnu took the incarnation of Lord Ram and Lord Krishna. Goddess Laxmi also Incarnated as Mother Sita and Rukmini to aid and keep the Lord company.


Lord Shiva is the destroyer God in Hinduism. When the universe reaches of age and need to be destroyed Lord Shiva performs the dance of destruction to destroy the universe. The old universe in destroyed so that a new one filled with life can take its place.

Shiva or Mahadev in Hinduism is depicted as a man with long hair. He wears the skin of tiger and elephant and wear snake in neck as ornaments. He holds Damrau in one hand and carries Trishul in his other hand. He rides an old ox Nandi, and his body is covered with ashes. Half crescent moon resides in his hair. He has three eyes, the third is located at the middle of forehead. When Lord Shiva gets angry the third eye opens and catastrophe happens.

Goddess Parvati is the wife of Lord shiva. She is the feminine form and power of Lord Shiva. They both live in Mount Kailash with their children and Shiva gad. She is called as Shakti as she is the energy of Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva uses that energy to destroy the universe.

The duty of Lord Shiva in not only the destruction of universe, but also the destruction of evil and negative energy. Time and time again Lord Shiva also have incarnated in many forms to destroy evil, give boons, give knowledge, and help those who are in problems.


Parvati is the energy God in Hinduism. She is the wife of Lord Shiva. She is the manifestation of all the energy present in existence. She is depicted as a woman sitting beside lord Shiva whenever both of them are imagined together. Lord Shiva and goddess Parvati have Ganesh, Kartike and Ashoksundari as their children.

Goddess Parvati have time and time incarnated as other goddess to destroy the demons. Mahakali, Nava Durga are all the various incarnations of goddess Parvati. Goddess Parvati is so ferocious and powerful in her battle form that no one can existence can stand up against her power. Being a mother defines the feminine, caring mother side of her personality. However, when Dharma is in danger and Assur hinders the balance of the world. She takes the form of Mahakali who destroys all the evil and evil doers.

The trinity with their wives is the most important God in Hinduism. When there was nothing in the universe there were there and when nothing will be there they will be there. When lord Vishnu wakes from the Yog Nidra, the universe awakens. Then from the Navi of Lord Vishnu a lotus sprouts, from which Lord Brahma is born. When a Brahma is born creation in the universe starts.

From the heavenly bodies to Sun, moon, and stars to the minute things everything is created by Brahma. Then after creating the lifeless things, Brahma creates the living beings. Now, it is the duty of Lord Vishnu to put life in the body. Without Lord Vishnu inserting life into the body, it is just a lump of bone, blood, and muscle.

When a living being is born, Lord Vishnu inserts a fragment of himself as the life into the living being. Then, when the being dies the soul (Fragment of Paramatma) is returned to Lord Vishnu.

Brahma then creates other gods and demigods to run the world. Aside from gods Brahma also creates Spata rishis, and others who will play significant role in the world.


Indra is the king of the gods and lives in swarga with other gods. He is the god of rain and lightning. He is tasked with giving rain to the world. When rain comes people in Hinduism believe that it is Lord Indra. Indra rides a giant elephant called as Airawat. While Indra may be the king of gods, he is not above the Trinity. The Trinity appointed Indra as the king of gods in swarga. He follows and completes the tasks that are given by the trinity.


Aagni is the fire God in Hinduism. God Aagni is responsible for all the fire that exists in the universe. From the small ignition to the burning stars all is due to the power of Aagni. Aagni is the first elements created by brahma to start life in Universe.


Barun is the water God in Hinduism. God Barun in responsible for all the water that exists in the world. The small drop to the masses of ocean, all is Barun dev. Water was also one of the elements that were created before the creation of life.


Pawan is the wind God in Hinduism. God Pawan is responsible for all the air that exists in the world. Air is the basic from of life in all. God Pawan is also the father of the Hanuman and demigod Bheem.


Surya is the sun God in Hinduism. Many religious worship suns as their god. Every religion realizes that sun is the source of all life that originates on earth. Sun is called as Suryaa dev in Hinduism. He is also the father of other gods such as Yama (The god of death) and Sani (Saturn).


Chandra is the moon God in Hinduism. Like some other religions Hinduism also worships moon. Moon is the god of beauty and calmness in Hinduism. God Chandra in his lunar form resides in the hair of Shiva (Mahadev) as his ornament.


Vishwakarma is the architect and craft God in Hinduism. He is the chief architect of the gods. He is responsible for the creation of palaces, weapons and everything the god’s desire. The people on earth Vishwakarma, to give strength and longevity to their instruments, vehicles etc.

There are said to be about 33 Koti gods in Hinduism. Some say that this Koti means there are total 33 crore God in Hinduism. However, some scholars also say that this 33 Koti does not mean 33 crores but says 33 types of gods. Regardless, the debate of type or crore there is no denying that there are vast number God in Hinduism.

The vast number of God is because, the universe in itself too vast and the time is also too large. Hinduism divides time in 4 Yug’s and each Yug has a peculiar nature. From the dawn of time to the end of time, various issues aroused. From the job of creation to destruction. From protection to control of the elements. That is why vast number of gods were created to fulfill the duty. Another number of reasons for this is the incarnation, same god incarnates as other gods to fulfill the duty. Basically, Lord Ram, Lord Krishna, Lord Vishnu are one and the same. Bhirav, Hanuman are the avatars of Lord Shiva himself. This also increased the number of gods.

Regardless all things, the topic of God in Hinduism is a vast and amazing study. Trying to grasp all in once may be an extraordinarily complex thing, however if one were to hold back take his/her time to be immersed in Hinduism. It makes more sense, and one will surely be enchanted by the richness of culture, originality, and authenticity of the matter.